The 1970 Osaka International Exposition served as a showcase for the triumphant Japanese capitalism, ready to flood the international market with transistors and automobiles. Its annual growth rate remained at 5%, far from the wild 10% of the 1950s, but high enough for some Western leaders to raise the alarm. Richard Nixon declared in 1971 that the economic competition they had to face was “a challenge even greater than that of the dark days of Pearl Harbor.”

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